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Salinity is key to studying the water cycle and ocean circulation, both of which are related to climate. Over decades, the amount of salt in ocean basins has been fairly stable. The water cycle operates on much faster time scales, however, causing changes in salinity patterns.
Evolution of the SMAP sea surface salinity (SSS) and soil moisture responses to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria of 2017.
The Cryosphere refers to any place on Earth where water is in its solid form, where low temperatures freeze water and turn it into ice. The frozen water can be in the form of solid ice or snow and occurs in many places around the Earth.
If you want to understand how interconnected our planet is—how patterns and events in one place can affect life half a world away—study El Niño.