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El Niño is a condition that sometimes occurs in the Pacific Ocean, but it is so big that it affects weather all over the world.  Weather depends a lot on ocean temperatures. Where the ocean is warm, more clouds form, and more rain falls in that part of the world.


Hurricanes are large, swirling storms with winds of 119 kilometers per hour (74 mph) or higher. That's quicker than a cheetah can run which is the fastest animal on land.  They are said to be the most violent storms on Earth.


Learn more about the different causes of sea level change and the scientific background of observations and projecting sea level. Find out about the history of measuring sea level and how state-of-the-art physical climate models predict sea level change into the future.




An urban heat island is a phenomenon that is best described when a city experiences much warmer temperatures than in nearby rural areas. The sun’s heat and light reach the city and the country in the same way. The difference in temperature between urban and less-developed rural areas has to do with how well the surfaces in each environment absorb and hold heat.


Ocean waters are constantly on the move; understanding how and why they move is not an easy task. However, it is an important job considering that these waters affect Earth’s climate, as well as habitats for plants and animals, even on land.


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