Check out this the Arctic and Earth SIGNs video to explore how climate models are used in climate change research.
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NASA Worldview is a free online visualization tool that is a great launchpad for learners who are new (or veteran) users of satellite data.
This investigation is part of the NASA: Mission Geography Module "What are the causes and consequences of climate change?" that guides students through explorations in climatic variability and evidence for global climate change.