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Salinity is key to studying the water cycle and ocean circulation, both of which are related to climate. Over decades, the amount of salt in ocean basins has been fairly stable. The water cycle operates on much faster time scales, however, causing changes in salinity patterns.
Soil moisture is the water that is held in the spaces between soil particles, generally in the upper 10 cm of soil. Although soil moisture is just a fraction of the total water mass in the water cycle, this small amount of water plays a critical role in evaporation and plant transpiration proces
Energy from the Sun is the driver of many Earth System processes. This energy flows into the Atmosphere and heats this system up It also heats up the Hydrosphere and the land surface of the Geosphere, and fuels many processes in the Biosphere.
The Hydrosphere is associated with water in the liquid state, which covers about 70% of the Earth's surface. Most liquid water is found in the oceans.
The Earth acts as a giant engine that uses solar power to move air in the atmosphere and water in the ocean.
Two characteristics of climate change are resulting in sea level rise. First, the melting of ice sheets and glaciers on land are adding more water to the oceans.
Forests are an important and common feature of the Earth’s land cover, covering 31 percent of the total land surface. There are two regions in particular where forests are common.
This story map is intended to be used with students who have access to a computing device in a 1:1 or 1:2 setting. Using various visualizations (i.e., images, charts, and graphs), students will explore the energy exchange that occurs when hurricanes extract heat energy from the ocean.
In Part A of this lab, students will examine a variety of images and maps of the whole Earth in order to identify the major components of the Earth system at a global scale.
The Cryosphere refers to any place on Earth where water is in its solid form, where low temperatures freeze water and turn it into ice. The frozen water can be in the form of solid ice or snow and occurs in many places around the Earth.