The purpose of this activity is for students to create a desktop soil profile based on the biome region of the United States where your school is located.

## Educational Resources - Search Tool

In this activity, students explore three indicators of drought are: soil moisture, lack of precipitation, and decreased streamflows. Students investigate each of these parameters develop a sense for the effects of drought on land.

Test your knowledge of soil moisture and its effect on global populations. Soil moisture is the amount of water contained in the soil.

Use the Data Literacy Cubes to guide students’ exploration of mapped data of the Earth System to enrich their observations and inferences. This is a flexible resource that may be used with a variety of mapped images. This activity requires a map of Earth data for students to evaluate.

Use the Data Literacy Cubes to guide students’ exploration of data to enrich their observations and inferences. This is a flexible resource that may be used with a variety of graphical representations of data. This activity requires a graph for students to evaluate.

Use the Data Literacy Cubes to guide students’ exploration of data to enrich their observations and inferences. This is a flexible resource that may be used with a variety of graphical representations of data. This activity requires a graph for students to evaluate. For the purposes

Use the Data Literacy Cubes to guide students’ exploration of data to enrich their observations and inferences. This is a flexible resource that may be used with a variety of data, whether the data originates from students' investigations with personally-collected data or data that they have acc

In this lesson, Observing Earth’s Seasonal Changes, students observe patterns of average snow and ice amounts as they change from one month to another, as well as connect the concepts of the tilt and orbit of the Earth (causing the changing of seasons) with monthly snow/ice data from January 2008

Students graph sea ice extent (area) in both polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) over a three-year period to learn about seasonal variations and over a 30-year period to learn about longer-term trends.

This series of videos highlights how NASA Climate Scientists use mathematics to solve everyday problems. These educational videos to illustrate how math is used in satellite data analysis.

## Filters

#### Student Tech Requirements

#### Resource Type

#### Lesson Duration

#### NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas

- ESS1C: The History of Planet Earth
- ESS2A: Earth Materials and Systems
- ESS2B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale Systems
- ESS2C: The Role of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
- ESS2D: Weather and Climate
- ESS2E: Biogeology
- ESS3A: Natural Resources
- ESS3B: Natural Hazards
- ESS3C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
- ESS3D: Global Climate Change
- LS1A: Structure and Function
- LS1B: Growth and Development of Organisms
- LS1D: Information Processing
- LS2A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
- LS2B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
- LS4C: Adaptation
- PS1A: Structure and Properties of Matter
- PS3B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
- PS4A: Wave Properties
- PS4B: Electromagnetic Radiation

#### NGSS Science and Engineering Practices

- Analyzing and Interpreting Data
- Asking Questions and Defining Problems
- Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
- Developing and Using Models
- Engaging in Argument from Evidence
- Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information
- Planning and Carrying out Investigations
- Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

#### NGSS Crosscutting Concepts

#### Supported NGSS Performance Expectations

- 3-ESS2-1: Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.
- 3-ESS2-2: Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world.
- 3-LS3-2: Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.
- 3rd to 5th
- 4-ESS1-1: Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
- 4-ESS2-1: Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
- 4-ESS2-1: Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
- 4-ESS2-1: Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
- 4-ESS2-2: Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
- 4-ESS2-2: Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
- 4-ESS2-2: Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
- 4-ESS3-1: Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment.
- 4-ESS3-2: Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.
- 4-ESS3-2: Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.
- 4-LS1-1: Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
- 4-PS3-1: Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.
- 4-PS3-2: Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
- 4-PS3-2: Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
- 4-PS4-2: Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.
- 5-ESS1-1: Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from the Earth.
- 5-ESS1-2: Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.
- 5-ESS2-1: Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
- 5-ESS2-1: Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
- 5-ESS3-1: Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment.
- 5-LS1-1: Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.
- 6th to 8th
- 9th to 12th
- ESS2A: Earth Materials and Systems
- ESS2A: Earth Materials and Systems
- ESS2D: Weather and Climate
- ESS2E: Biogeology
- ESS3C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
- HS-ESS1-1: Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation.
- HS-ESS2-1: Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.
- HS-ESS2-1: Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.
- HS-ESS2-1: Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.
- HS-ESS2-2: Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth's surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.
- HS-ESS2-2: Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth's surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.
- HS-ESS2-2: Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth's surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.
- HS-ESS2-3: Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.
- HS-ESS2-3: Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.
- HS-ESS2-4: Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
- HS-ESS2-4: Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
- HS-ESS2-4: Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
- HS-ESS2-5: Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes.
- HS-ESS2-6: Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
- HS-ESS2-6: Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
- HS-ESS3-1: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.
- HS-ESS3-1: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.
- HS-ESS3-1: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.
- HS-ESS3-3: Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among the management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity.
- HS-ESS3-4: Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.
- HS-ESS3-4: Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.
- HS-ESS3-5: Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth's systems.
- HS-ESS3-5: Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth's systems.
- HS-ESS3-5: Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth's systems.
- HS-ESS3-6: Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.
- HS-ESS3-6: Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.
- HS-ESS3-6: Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.
- HS-LS1-5: Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
- HS-LS2-3: Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
- HS-LS2-4: Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.
- HS-LS2-5: Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
- HS-LS2-5: Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
- HS-LS2-7: Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.
- HS-PS3-4: Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the
- MS-ESS2-1: Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
- MS-ESS2-1: Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
- MS-ESS2-1: Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
- MS-ESS2-2: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
- MS-ESS2-2: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
- MS-ESS2-2: Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
- MS-ESS2-3: Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
- MS-ESS2-3: Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
- MS-ESS2-3: Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
- MS-ESS2-4: Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
- MS-ESS2-4: Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
- MS-ESS2-4: Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
- MS-ESS2-5: Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses result in changes in weather conditions.
- MS-ESS2-6: Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
- MS-ESS2-6: Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
- MS-ESS2-6: Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
- MS-ESS3-1: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
- MS-ESS3-1: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
- MS-ESS3-2: Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.
- MS-ESS3-2: Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.
- MS-ESS3-2: Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.
- MS-ESS3-3: Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
- MS-ESS3-3: Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
- MS-ESS3-4: Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
- MS-ESS3-4: Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
- MS-ESS3-5: Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.
- MS-ESS3-5: Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.
- MS-ESS3-5: Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.
- MS-LS1-3: Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
- MS-LS1-4: Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respecti
- MS-LS1-5: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.
- MS-LS1-6: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
- MS-LS1-6: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
- MS-LS2-1: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
- MS-LS2-3: Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
- MS-LS2-3: Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
- MS-LS2-4: Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
- MS-PS1-3: Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
- MS-PS1-4: Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
- MS-PS2-4: Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
- MS-PS3-3: Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
- MS-PS3-5: Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
- MS-PS4-2: Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
- MS-PS4-2: Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

#### Supported Common Core Math

- CC.3.MD.1 Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects. Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtract
- CC.3.MD.3 Represent and interpret data. Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled
- CC.3.MD.4 Represent and interpret data. Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbe
- CC.4.MD.4 Represent and interpret data. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example
- CC.5.G.2 Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems. Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the
- CC.5.MD.2 Represent and interpret data. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example,
- CC.6.RP.3b Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, If it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?
- CC.6.RP.3c Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole given a part and the percent.
- CC.6.RP.3d Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.
- CC.6.SP.1 Develop understanding of statistical variability. Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical
- CC.6.SP.2 Develop understanding of statistical variability. Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
- CC.6.SP.3 Develop understanding of statistical variability. Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.
- CC.6.SP.4 Summarize and describe distributions. Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.
- CC.6.SP.5 Summarize and describe distributions. Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context.
- CC.7.G.1 Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them. Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale
- CC.7.G.4 Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume. Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship betwee
- CC.7.RP.1 Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. F
- CC.7.RP.2b Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.
- CC.7.RP.3 Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and co
- CC.7.SP.3 Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multipl
- CC.8.SP.1 Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive o
- CC.8.SP.2 Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and i
- CC.9-12.F.LE.1c Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.*
- CC.9-12.N.Q.1 Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the or
- CC.9-12.N.Q.2 Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.*
- CC.9-12.S.ID.1 Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).*
- CC.9-12.S.ID.2 Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of tw
- CC.9-12.S.ID.3 Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).*
- CC.9-12.S.ID.4 Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data s
- CC.9-12.S.ID.6 Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables. Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.*
- CC.9-12.S.ID.6a Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models.*
- CC.9-12.S.ID.6c Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.*
- CC.9-12.S.ID.8 Interpret linear models. Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.*
- Functions
- Geometry